文章来源：冲融五金网 | 2020-03-26
Shanxi TT waste gas treatment and environmental protection technology center / finishing
在浓浓的雾霾面前，治理挥发性有机物显得刻不容缓,山西TT废气处理（深圳海德隆山西办）和您一同分享：In front of the thick haze, treatment of VOCs is imperative, Shanxi TT gas processing (Shenzhen Haidelong Shanxi Office) to share with you:
2016年冬，全国多地屡次陷入重度雾霾。机动车限行、工业企业减产限产等各种应急措施纷纷施行，人们的生活和健康受到了极大的影响与威胁。对此，人们在朋友圈里极尽调侃，在生活中口罩相伴。2016 winter, the country has repeatedly been caught in severe haze. The vehicle limit line, industrial companies cut production of various emergency measures have been implemented, people's life and health has been greatly affected and threatened. In this regard, the people in his circle of friends laugh, in life with masks.
据环保界人士分析，挥发性有机物是形成光化学烟雾的关键因素，而光化学烟雾恰恰是形成雾霾的关键因素。挥发性有机物与工业尾气、烟尘、粉尘等经光化学反应生成二次污染物光化学烟雾，长期漂浮在空气中。同时，光化学烟雾发出的热一定程度上破坏了云雾变为雨雪的冷凝条件，导致雨雪减少。据环保部测算,中国挥发性有机物每年排放量高达3000多万吨，位居世界第一位。在浓浓的雾霾面前，治理挥发性有机物显得刻不容缓。According to the environmental protection industry analysis, volatile organic matter is a key factor in the formation of photochemical smog, and photochemical smog is the key factor in the formation of haze. Volatile organic compounds and industrial emissions, soot, dust and other photochemical reactions to generate two photochemical smog of pollutants, long-term floating in the air. At the same time, the heat to a certain extent on the destruction of the photochemical smog from clouds into rain and snow to rain and snow conditions of condensation, reduction. According to estimates by the Ministry of environmental protection, China's annual emissions of volatile organic compounds up to about 30000000 tons, ranking first in the world. In the face of thick fog and haze, governance volatile organic matter seems urgent.
对此，各地环保部门的行动十分坚决。比如，河北省廊坊市环保局规定，按照《廊坊市2016年挥发性有机物治理工作实施方案》要求，2016年度内VOCs治理未达标的企业，自2017年1月1日起，一律停止排放污染物。又比如，2016年12月底陕西省环保厅会同延安市环保局、榆林市环保局组成督查组，对此前要求整改的陕西延长石油(集团)有限责任公司挥发性有机物治理工作开展督查。经过整改，延长集团下属企业挥发性有机物泄漏检测与修复工作全部完成，共建档密封点位40万个，修复泄漏点位2966个，挥发性有机物减排38%。再比如，环境保护部2016年12月13日印发了2016年《国家先进污染防治技术目录(VOCs防治领域)》，鼓励这些挥发性有机物防治技术的应用与推广。In this regard, the environmental protection departments around the action is very firm. For example, the provisions of Hebei Province, Langfang City Environmental Protection Bureau, in accordance with the requirements of the implementation of the "program" treatment of volatile organic compounds in Langfang city in 2016, 2016 year VOCs governance did not meet the enterprise, since January 1, 2017, will stop the discharge of pollutants. For example, the end of December 2016, the Shaanxi provincial Environmental Protection Bureau in conjunction with the Yanan Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, Yulin Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau Inspection Team, prior to the requirements of the rectification of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) work in the treatment of volatile organic compounds, limited liability company to carry out the inspection. After rectification, the extension of the group of enterprises under the volatile organic matter leak detection and repair work is completed, to build a file seal point 400 thousand, repair the leak point of the 2966, volatile organic compounds emissions reduction of 38%. For example, the Ministry of environmental protection issued in 2016 in the "national advanced pollution prevention technology directory (VOCs prevention and control field)", to encourage the use of these volatile organic compounds in the prevention and control technology and promotion of.
看起来，挥发性有机物治理有基础、有市场、有技术、有监管，可谓万事俱备。然而在治理工作中我们发现，挥发性有机物就像是一头隐形的大象，而目前与挥发性有机物治理相关的工作，却在只掌握了这头大象的局部特征时，就盲目地动手了。Look, the treatment of volatile organic compounds have the foundation, market, technology, supervision, described as everything is ready. However, in the governance work we found that volatile organic compounds like a invisible elephant, and now with the treatment of volatile organic compounds in related work, but only mastered the local features of the elephant, blindly.
定义五花八门，管控方向不明Define a variety of control direction unknown
首先，盲在定义。First, the definition of blindness.
环境保护部环境工程评估中心石化轻纺部高工郭森表示，从国家层面说，目前根本没有科学统一的国家挥发性有机物定义，因此在对挥发性有机物进行表述时也无法统一。The environmental protection department of Environmental Engineering Assessment Center Senior Engineer Guo Sen Petrochemical textile department said, from the national level, there is no national unified scientific definition of volatile organic compounds, so it is not uniform in the volatile organic compounds express.
据了解，从2013年起，国家陆续发布了《挥发性有机物污染防治技术政策》《石化行业挥发性有机物综合整治方案》《重点行业挥发性有机物削减行动规划》《挥发性有机物排污收费试点办法》等多项政策措施。“十三五”规划纲要更是首次将挥发性有机物新纳入总量控制指标，同时提出在重点区域、重点行业推进挥发性有机物排放总量控制，全国排放总量下降10%以上。难道这些政策里说的挥发性有机物竟不是一个定义？郭森说，即使从国家出台的政策来看，挥发性有机物的定义也是五花八门。有的是从蒸汽压的角度定义的，有的是从挥发性角度定义的，还有的是从光化学活性角度定义的。It is understood that, from 2013 onwards, the state has issued a "volatile organic pollution control technology policy" "petrochemical industry VOC remediation program" key industries "volatile organic compounds reduction action plan" "volatile organic sewage charges pilot" and a number of policy measures. "13th Five-Year" plan is the first time the volatile organic compounds into the new quota of total control, and put forward the VOC emissions control in key areas, key industries, the total emissions decreased by more than 10%. Are these policies in the volatile organic matter is not a definition? Guo Sen said that even from the country's policy, the definition of volatile organic compounds are also diverse. Some are defined from the point of view of vapor pressure, some are defined from the point of view of volatility, and others are defined from the point of view of photochemical activity.
从颁布的这些政策文件，确实发现大部分没有专门给出挥发性有机物的定义。在有准确定义的文件中，概念也各不相同。在环保部2015年4月16日发布的《石油化学工业污染物排放标准》中，挥发性有机物定义是：参与大气光化学反应的有机化合物，或者根据规定的方法测量或核算确定的有机化合物。显然，这个定义强调的是光化学活性。From these policy documents, it is found that most of them do not give the definition of volatile organic compounds. In a document that is well defined, the concepts are different. In April 16, 2015 the Ministry of environmental protection issued the "petroleum chemical industry pollutant emission standards", volatile organic compounds is defined as organic compounds participate in photochemical reactions, or determined according to the provisions of the method of measurement or calculation of organic compounds. Clearly, this definition emphasizes the photochemical activity.
而财政部、发改委、环保部2015年6月18日发布的《挥发性有机物排污收费试点办法》里，挥发性有机物是指特定条件下具有挥发性的有机化合物的统称。具有挥发性的有机化合物主要包括非甲烷总烃(烷烃、烯烃、炔烃、芳香烃)、含氧有机化合物(醛、酮、醇、醚等)、卤代烃、含氮化合物、含硫化合物等。显然，这个定义则更注重挥发性。而天津市地方标准中的定义是：在20摄氏度条件下蒸气压大于或者等于10帕，或者特定适用条件下具有相应挥发性的全部有机化合物(不包括甲烷)。这应该是从蒸汽压的角度定义了挥发性有机物。The Ministry of finance, development and Reform Commission, Ministry of environmental protection issued in June 18, 2015, "volatile organic pollutants charging pilot approach", volatile organic compounds refers to the specific conditions of volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds with mainly non methane hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbon), oxygen containing organic compounds (aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, ether), halogenated hydrocarbons, nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, etc.. Obviously, this definition is more emphasis on volatility. The definition of local standards in Tianjin is: under the condition of 20 degrees Celsius vapor pressure is greater than or equal to 10 Pa, or under certain conditions with a corresponding volatile organic compounds (excluding methane). This should be defined from the point of view of the vapor pressure of volatile organic compounds.
进一步了解就会发现，其实在全球范围内，挥发性有机物的定义也是各不相同。世界卫生组织的定义为：熔点低于室温、沸点低于260摄氏度，常温下饱和蒸气压大于70.91帕、并以气态形式存在于空气中的一类化合物的总称。美国材料与试验协会D3960-98标准定义为任何能参加大气光化学反应的有机化合物。美国联邦环保署的定义是：除一氧化碳、二氧化碳、碳酸、金属碳化物、金属碳酸盐和碳酸铵外，任何参加大气光化学反应的碳化合物。Further understanding will find that, in fact, in the global scope, the definition of volatile organic compounds are also different. WHO is defined as: the melting point is lower than room temperature, boiling point below 260 degrees Celsius, room temperature saturated vapor pressure greater than 70.91 PA, and in the form of a gas exists in a class of compounds. The American Society for testing and materials (D3960-98) is defined as any organic compound capable of participating in atmospheric photochemical reactions. The United States Environmental Protection Agency is defined as: in addition to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metal carbide, metal carbonate and ammonium carbonate, any part of the atmospheric photochemical reaction of carbon compounds.
德国标准化学会55649-2000标准定义为：原则上，在常温常压下，任何能自发挥发的有机液体和/或固体。德国巴斯夫公司则认为，最方便和最常见的方法是根据沸点来界定哪些物质属于挥发性有机物，而最普遍的共识认为挥发性有机物是指那些沸点等于或低于250摄氏度的化学物质。The 55649-2000 standard is defined as: in principle, any organic liquid and / or solid that can spontaneously volatilize at normal temperature and pressure. The German Basf Inc believes that the most convenient and most common method is to define which belongs to the material according to the boiling point of volatile organic compounds, and the most common consensus that volatile organic compounds are those chemical substances is equal to or lower than the boiling point of 250 degrees celsius.
可以看出，世界卫生组织和德国巴斯夫公司主要是对沸点或初馏点作了限定，不管其是否参加大气光化学反应。美国的定义对沸点或初馏点不作限定，强调参加大气光化学反应。德国则对沸点和初馏点不作限定，也不管是否参加大气光化学反应，只强调在常温常压下能自发挥发。从我国环保部门近两年出台的规定看，更多的参考了美国的定义。这表明，环保部门认为挥发性有机物就是会参加大气光化学反应制造雾霾的罪魁祸首。It can be seen that the WHO and the German Basf Inc is mainly to the boiling point or the initial boiling point has been limited, whether or not to participate in atmospheric photochemical reaction. The definition of the United States is not limited to boiling point or initial boiling point. Germany is not limited to boiling point and initial boiling point, regardless of whether or not to participate in atmospheric photochemical reactions, only stressed at normal temperature and pressure can be spontaneous evaporation. From the environmental protection department of China in recent years, the introduction of the provisions of view, more reference to the definition of the United states. This shows that the environmental protection department believes that volatile organic matter is to participate in the production of atmospheric photochemical reaction haze culprit.
海南省生态环境保护厅总工程师周学双指出，总体而言，我国的挥发性有机物定义处于较为混乱和矛盾的局面，体现在反应性定义和挥发性定义同时存在、挥发性定义中挥发性限值不统一、反应性定义中缺乏豁免物质等方面。Hainan Province Environmental Protection Bureau Chief Engineer Zhou Xueshuang pointed out that, overall, China's definition of volatile organic compounds in a more confusing and contradictory situation, reflected in the reaction at the same time, the definition and definition of the definition of volatile volatile volatile limits are not unified, the definition of reactive substances and the lack of immunity.
定义不同，涵盖的物质就不同，管控的方向也就不明。这给挥发性有机物污染源统计、监测、管控等都带来了困难，严重制约了我国挥发性有机物的环境管控。“反映到实际中，就是企业搞不明白到底哪些物质算作挥发性有机物，考核挥发性有机物时就难免争议。这种不统一，还造成对挥发性有机物的表征方法不一致，有的用非甲烷总烃来替代，有的按照其中具体的物质计算，还有的按碳计算，多种多样的算法导致计算出来的数据也都不统一，最后又给国家决策造成了困难。”郭森如是说。“我建议采纳基于豁免政策的反应性国家统一挥发性有机物定义，科学指导顶层设计，并逐步统一固定源挥发性有机物表征方法。”The definition is different, the material is different, the direction of control is unknown. This has brought difficulties to the statistics, monitoring and control of volatile organic compounds, which has seriously restricted the environmental control of volatile organic compounds in china. Reflected in the reality, is that companies do not understand what substance is considered as volatile organic matter, volatile organic matter when it is inevitable controversy. This is not uniform, but also caused the characterization method for volatile organic compounds is not the same, some non methane hydrocarbons to replace, which have according to the concrete material calculation, and according to the carbon calculation, a variety of algorithms leading to the calculated data are not uniform, and finally to the national decision-making difficult." Guo Senru is saying. "I propose to adopt a reactive national unified definition of volatile organic compounds based on the exemption policy, scientifically guide the top-level design, and gradually unify the characterization of stationary sources of volatile organic compounds."
监测混乱无章，普遍弄虚作假Monitoring chaotic, generally resort to deceit
其次，盲在监测。Secondly, blind monitoring.
挥发性有机物的治理首先要监测。而现实是，我国监测环节混乱无章。Monitoring of volatile organic compounds should be monitored. The reality is that China's monitoring link chaos chapter.
中国石化联合会供应商工作委员会石化行业VOCs治理技术专业组秘书长丛东旭介绍，由于挥发性有机物种类多、组分复杂、浓度范围变化大、活性差异显著，传统的监测技术设备或小范围监测系统都不能从数据中提取有效信息，根本达不到监测目的，无法解决挥发性有机物排放底数不清的问题。国内挥发性有机物监测起步较晚，与发达国家相比，在线监测技术基础还比较薄弱。再加上缺乏国家挥发性有机物在线监测技术规范，目前的在线监测技术市场呈现出方法驳杂、良莠不齐的混乱局面。Sinopec Association Working Committee of the petrochemical industry supplier VOCs management technology professional group introduced the Secretary General Cong Dongxu, due to the type of volatile organic compounds, complex composition, concentration changes, activity difference, monitoring technology and equipment of traditional or small range monitoring system can effectively extract information from the data, did not reach the purpose of monitoring that can not solve the emissions of volatile organic compounds in countless problems. The monitoring of volatile organic compounds in China started late, compared with developed countries, the online monitoring technology is still relatively weak. Coupled with the lack of national technical specifications of VOCs on-line monitoring, on-line monitoring technology market currently presents method of complex and uneven in quality chaos.
据业内人士透露，目前国内挥发性有机物的监测其实已经成了一个大蛋糕。《挥发性有机物排污收费试点办法》规定，达标收费，超标违法，违法要受到处罚，需要排污企业承担更高的经济代价。也就是说，排污企业必须通过监测了解排放的挥发性有机物是否达标，排多少种，排多少量，以便采取有效治理措施。据测算，企业按单套监测设备40万元估算，市场空间为370亿元；相关产业园区按单套设备150万元估算，市场空间为60亿元；城市空气质量在线监测市场空间为40亿元。在政策、需求、利益因素的驱动下，良莠不齐的监测仪器纷纷上马了。According to industry sources, the current monitoring of volatile organic compounds in fact has become a big cake. "Volatile organic pollutants charging pilot approach" provides that the standard charges, excessive illegal, illegal to be punished, the need for sewage companies to bear higher economic costs. In other words, the sewage companies must be monitored to understand whether emissions of volatile organic compounds, the number of rows, the number of rows in order to take effective measures. According to estimates, enterprises according to the single set of monitoring equipment 400 thousand yuan estimated market space for 37 billion yuan; the relevant industrial park according to a single set of equipment of 1 million 500 thousand yuan estimated market space for 6 billion yuan; City air quality monitoring market space for 4 billion yuan. In the drive policy, demand, interest factors, monitoring instruments have launched uneven in quality.
“国内监测技术还是需要突破。”上海化学工业区高级工程师张发兵说，“我们引进的国外监测设备，投入实在太大了，尤其是每增加一个特征污染物，都要增加一笔很大的费用。在空气监测网络和车载监测设备方面，园区亟需的挥发性有机物在线监测设备、空气污染物传感器和环境空气应急监测设备却都没有找到满意的国产仪器。”Domestic monitoring technology still need to break through." Zhang Fabing, senior engineer of Shanghai Chemical Industrial Zone, said, "we have introduced a lot of foreign monitoring equipment, which is too large, especially for each additional feature of pollutants, to increase a large fee. In the air monitoring network and vehicle monitoring equipment, park to VOCs on-line monitoring equipment, air pollution sensors and air environment emergency monitoring equipment but did not find a satisfactory instrument made in china."
如果说监测技术盲在测不出、测不准挥发性有机物，那么监测过程就盲在企业应付、管理者放水。If the monitoring technology is not measured in the blind, the measurement of volatile organic compounds, then the monitoring process is blind in the enterprise to cope with, the management of water.
“《石化行业VOCs污染源排查工作指南》《石化企业泄漏检测与修复工作指南》都对监测有着具体的要求，然而在实际中，企业可能只监测一次，就用来代表全年的监测数据。这样的监测，既不能反映企业日常运行的情况，又不具有统计参考意义，与环保部的排查目的相去甚远。”郭森对此感触很深。"VOCs" petrochemical industry pollution investigation guide "" petrochemical enterprises leak detection and repair work of Monitoring Guide "has a specific requirement, but in reality, the enterprise may only be used once monitoring, monitoring data representative of the year. Such monitoring, both cannot reflect the enterprise's operation, and has no statistical significance, far from the environmental protection department of the investigation purpose." Guo Sen deep feelings.
更可怕的是，没有真正的在线监测，就势必给企业造假提供了可能空间——企业很可能安装一些低质、低效、低价的治理或监测设备，应付环保部门人工监督检查。近日，环保部督查组在河北唐山开展环保专项**时发现，唐山迁安市宝利源炼焦有限公司焦炉烟气在线监控涉嫌造假。该公司在未安装脱硫装置情况下，二氧化硫历史数据显示长期达标排放，为40毫克/立方米左右(标准50毫克/立方米)，但督查组现场人工监测烟囱排放二氧化硫为111毫克/立方米，超标1.2倍。Even more frightening is that no real online monitoring, it will give the enterprise fraud possible space enterprise is likely to install some low quality, low efficiency, low management or monitoring equipment, meet the artificial supervision and inspection of environmental protection departments. Recently, the Ministry of environmental protection inspection team to carry out environmental protection special law enforcement in Hebei, Tangshan, found that the city of Qian'an coking coke Co., Ltd. coke oven on line monitoring of alleged fraud on behalf of. The company in the desulfurization equipment is not installed under the condition of historical data showed that long-term emissions of sulfur dioxide, 40 mg / cubic meter (standard 50 mg / m3), but the inspection team on-site manual monitoring of chimney emissions of sulfur dioxide is 111 mg / m3, exceed the standard 1.2 times.
“很多数据都收集不上来，或者收集上来的根本就不是真实的排放数据。”山东派力迪环保工程有限公司总工程师吴朝平说道，“一个城市上报了17万吨的排放量，实际上可能是170万吨；一个企业上报了2500吨的排放量，实际上可能就高达25000吨。如果排污企业持应付态度、监管者睁一只眼闭一只眼，监测行业就不可能做好了。”A lot of data can not be collected, or the collection is not the real emissions data." Shandong paili Di Environmental Engineering Co., Ltd. chief engineer Wu Zhaoping said, "a city reported 170 thousand tons of emissions, may actually be 1 million 700 thousand tons; a company reported 2500 tons of emissions, actually may be as high as 25000 tons. If the sewage companies to cope with the attitude of regulators to turn a blind eye, the monitoring industry can not do a good job."
政策正在完善，技术正在普及Policies are being improved, technology is becoming popular
好在，仍然有负责的企业和管理者在行动。中国石油化工股份有限公司青岛安全工程研究院教授级高工高少华表示，挥发性有机物监测的重要技术——泄漏检测与修复技术2015年在中国石化38家炼化企业全面推广。目前天津、上海、北京等多地区已经明确要求对挥发性有机物污染源进行在线监测。天津地区规定，企业挥发性有机物排放速率或排气量达到一定规模的，必须配套建设挥发性有机物在线监测设备；北京市环保局2016年8月8日印发的北京市地方标准《固定污染源废气挥发性有机物监测技术规范》(征求意见稿)详细规定了北京市固定污染源挥发性有机物监测的范围、监测方法的选择、采样技术的要求以及样品的运输和保存。Fortunately, there are still responsible for the operation of enterprises and managers. Professor of China Petroleum Chemical Co Qingdao Safety Engineering Research Institute Gao Shaohua said, an important technique for monitoring of VOCs, leak detection and repair technology in 2015 38 Sinopec comprehensive promotion in petrochemical enterprises. At present, Tianjin, Shanghai, Beijing and other regions have been explicitly asked for online monitoring of volatile organic pollutants. Tianjin area regulations, enterprises VOC emission rate or exhaust volume reaches a certain size, must be on-line monitoring equipment supporting the construction of volatile organic compounds; local standards of "Beijing City, Beijing City Environmental Protection Bureau in August 8, 2016 issued a stationary source emission of VOCs monitoring technology specification" (Draft), the detailed provisions of the scope of organic monitoring the volatile fixed pollution source in Beijing city monitoring method selection, sampling techniques and sample transport and storage requirements.
根据《石化行业挥发性有机物综合整治方案》，到2017年，全国石化行业要基本完成挥发性有机物综合整治工作，建成挥发性有机物监测监控体系，挥发性有机物排放总量较2014年削减30%以上。现在已经是2017年了，不知道这个目标还差多远？According to the "petrochemical industry VOC remediation program", to 2017, the national petrochemical industry to basically complete the comprehensive treatment of volatile organic compounds, organic matter monitoring system built in the volatile, volatile organic compounds emissions cuts of more than 30% compared to 2014. Now is 2017, do not know how far this goal is still far?